Thursday, May 21, 2020
Matthew Bojanowski Dr. James Delaney PHI 206 Assignment #4 Ernest Van den Haag strongly contends the need for capital punishment in our society in his article. Van den Haag provides a substantial amount of convincing facts and information to support Ã¢â¬Å"The Ultimate PunishmentÃ¢â¬ . Van den Haag discusses such topics as maldistribution, deterrence to society, miscarriages of the penalty, and incidental and political issues (cost, relative suffering, and brutalization). The death penalty is indeed the harshest/ultimate punishment a convicted criminal can receive in our society. I agree with Van den HaagÃ¢â¬â¢s article. I am in favor of the death penalty system in the United States. Through capital punishmentÃ¢â¬â¢s determent process, I feel it is aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But what we can conclude is that any sort of punishment is not intended to compensate or offset a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering. Punishment is intended to corroborate with the law and social order that has been established. Another argument against capital punishm ent is expressing the fact that we simply authorize, without question, the murdering through killing of the guilty. Murder is wrong and unlawful killing. Execution, however, is lawful and deserved punishment. Therefore, the physical similarities of murder and execution are irrelevant when arguing capital punishment. Through the normative ethical theory of consequentialism, capital punishment is morally required for society to operate. Supporters of consequentialism believe acts are right based on the positive sequences they produce. Instilling fear into society is vital to capturing peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. As deceiving and immoral as that may sound, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the inconceivable truth when dealing with crime and punishment. Therefore, consequentialists are committed to rules that help the betterment of society. Although studies have produced consistently inconclusive evidence to agree or disagree with this statement, I feel a large majority of society fears the ultimate end, death. An example of an effective argument against consequentialism and Van den HaagÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint in capital punishment is that no amountShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : Imposition Of A Penalty Of Death By The State Essay1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCapital punishment: Imposition of a penalty of death by the state. Capital punishment has been widely practiced ever since ancient times, as far back as 1500 B.C. From the fall of Rome to the beginning of modern times, capital punishment has been practiced all over the world. However, the problem in the justice system is that the death penalty can be wrongfully applied. This is rare but it does happen, the falsely incriminated is sentenced and executed. It is important that the government stillRead MoreThe Dilemma Of The Death Penalty1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdilemma of the death penalty in the philosophical outlooks of Utilitarianism and Deontology, present arguments in light of both, and proceed to show why Deontology offers the best insights into the justification for the death penalty. The death penalty, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"capital punishmentÃ¢â¬ , is, Ã¢â¬Å"the sentence of execution for murder and some other capital crimes (serious crimes, especially murder, which are punishable by death).Ã¢â¬ (Death Penalty Law, Law And Legal Definition). The death penalty has existedRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Not Be Legal950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreleased from death row since 1973. There has been many more people that were not released but executed and possibly innocent. Kantian ethics is the theory that says the moral actions are not determined by the consequences but by the right nature of the action. Capital punishment may be questionable with some cases of innocents, with that being said the use of capital punishment should only be used with cases to be absolute guilt. Capital punishment is also known as the death penalty, where someoneRead More The Ethics of Capital Punishment Essay1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Ethics of Capital Punishment Ethics is the study of standards of right and wrong; that part of philosophy dealing with moral conduct, duty and judgement. Capital Punishment is the death penalty for a crime. The word capital in capital punishment refers to a persons head as in the past; people were often executed by severing their head from their body. Since the early 1800s, most executions have resulted from convictions for murder. The death penaltyRead MoreDeath Penalty : An Ethical Dilemma1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Death Penalty: An Ethical Dilemma Philosophy branch which streamlines, protects and guides the concepts of being correct or incorrect is referred as Ethics. People learn this concept from their parents who got it from their parents and it is a chain. However philosophers claim that it is peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s belief which decide ethics along with human intuition. An individual at singular level conscientiously decides what is right and wrong and define a limit of pushing ethical behaviour and moralityRead MoreThe Death Penalty On The Criminal Justice System1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat place does the death penalty have in the criminal justice system? Should it be used to deter other criminals, should it be used to punish those who commit crimes, or does it have any place at all? In understanding the issue of the death penalty from a moral perspective, it is important to look back at philosophers of the past to better understand the ethical ramifications of the concept of capital punishment. We will be examining two nota ble philosophersÃ¢â¬âAristotle and Immanuel Kant. ThroughRead MorePhilosophy and Religion in Education Essay1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPhilosophy and Religion in Education The education mission of the philosophy and religion department serves the general studies core and the major. The department takes seriously its obligation to introduce general studies students to philosophy and religion as humanities disciplines. All courses at the 100 and 200 level are open to and designedRead MoreNo Moral Rule Is Absolute909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbsolute The simple definition of Utilitarianism is Ã¢â¬Å"the belief that a morally good action is one that helps the greatest number of peopleÃ¢â¬ (Utilitarianism, ). However, Utilitarianism is far from a Ã¢â¬ËsimpleÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy, and while there is no perfect doctrine when it comes to Normative Ethics, Utilitarianism comes the closest for a number of reasons. The first is impartiality; or rather equality of concern for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. The second is that Utilitarianism is not based in religion. The thirdRead MorePunishment Philosophies1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPunishment Philosophies Abstract The processes by which justice is applied are determined largely by proposed punishment philosophies. These express various concerns and arguments regarding appropriate sentencing and treatment. The philosophy of rehabilitation dominates the proceedings of juvenile courts, and is heavily scrutinized at an adult level, or when the criminal behavior of juveniles continues to accelerate, butRead MoreSecular Humanism - Death Penalty1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDate: 15.03.2011 Death Penalty from a Secular Humanist Point of View The United States remains in the minority of nations in the world that still uses death as penalty for certain crimes. Many see the penalty as barbaric and against American values. Others see it as a very important tool in fighting violent pre-meditated murder. From my point of view as a secular humanist, death penalty should be banned as a form of punishment. Secular humanism is a philosophical school of thought that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å" Civil rights is the term that refers to the right of every person to equal access to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities and public facilities.Ã¢â¬ Civil rights is used to imply that the state has a positive role in ensuring all citizens equal protection under law and equal opportunity to exercise the privileges of citizenship and to participate fully in life regardless of race, sex, religion, or other characters unrelated to the value of the individual. According to WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, the definition of civil rights is Ã¢â¬Å"the right s to personal liberty and to legal, economic, and social equality establish by amendments to the U.S. Constitution and by certain Congressional acts.Ã¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster) Civil rights have to with whether individualÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Inequality is built into almost every aspect of our society. Civil rights are any of the civil liberties guaranteed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments and the Civil Rights Acts of the Constitution. Civil rights are also protected under state constitutions and federal statutes that protect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights. For example, African Americans with a correctable heart problem are only half as likely to receive the necessary surgery as are whites with the same problem. Disadvantaged groups had to struggle for equal rights. African Americans, women, Native Americans, and others have all had to fight for their rights in order to come closer to equality with white males. Americans have attained substantial equality under the law. They have, in legal terms, equal protection of the laws, equal access to accommodations and housing, and equal right to vote. Legal equality for all Americans has not resulted in de facto equality. African Americans, women, Hispanic Americans, and other disadvantaged groups have a small share of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities and benefits. The history of America shows that disadvantaged groups have rarely achieved greater measure of justice without a struggle. Legal equality has been rarely bestowed by the more powerful upon the less powerful. Their gains have rarely always occurred through intense and sustained political movements, such as the civil rights movement of theShow MoreRelatedGender Discrimination Against Bank Of America876 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Civil Rights Act, the American s with Disability Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and many state laws. Even with these laws, discrimination still occurs within the workplace. This paper will investigate a case of gender discrimination against Bank of America and what could have been done to prevent this from happening. Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. In 2010, a group of female financial advisors filed a national class action lawsuit against Bank of America andRead MoreCivil Rights/Secret Life of Bees986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBridget Baker Mrs. McQuade Period 2 4/10/12 Racial Discrimination and Segregation In 1619 the very first African Americans arrived in America, coming over for the purpose of forced slavery. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been nearly four hundred years since then and African Americans are still not treated completely equal. But throughout the years major steps towards equality have been made and as a whole the United States is close to reaching this goal. The first key action taken was abolishing slavery in 1865, butRead MoreConsequences of the American Civil Rights Act of 19641192 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Observing half a century of an equality stimulating law: an economic review on the consequences of the American Civil Right act of 1964 Introduction The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted on July 2nd, 1964) is a milestone in the law history of the United States of America, which prohibited major forms of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices and public accommodations. In commemoration of the 50th anniversaryRead MorePersuasive Essay On The Kneeling Movement1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSince March 3, 1931, the Star-Spangled Banner has been instilled in almost every citizen in America as the National Anthem. It is ingrained that every person should show respect to the flag and the nation. In almost every classroom, students are told to stand facing the American flag with a hand over their heart and recite the pledge, or during any sporting, event fans are asked to stand to face the flag as a guest performer sings the National Anthem. This is an American tradition that everyone isRead MoreAfrican Americans During The 20th Century1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinfluential time frame for African-Americans in the United States would be from 1940-1970. During this time in America, Blacks everywhere were fighting against segregation and discrimination of their race. Consequently, the timeline of events that occurred during this time uncovers the numerous battles that African-American people fought in order to gain their freedom, and their rights as Americans. While these battles seemed everlasting, African-Americans were more persistent than ever in theirRead MoreCultural Impacts of the Civil Rights Act1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Civil Rights ActÃ¢â¬ Abstract Cultural Impacts of the Civil Rights Act Until the eighteenth century Civil Rights and LibertyÃ¢â¬â¢s were taken advantage of as a American. Observation in our judicial system cited within the paper suggest that our civil rights in America has improved and continue to evolve to this day. Cultural Impacts of American Civil Rights laws In recent years, a great deal has gone into fair treatment of all. As history serves, there was a great civil rightsRead MoreDiscrimination At The Modern Civil Rights Era Essay1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdeal with discrimination anymore. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get me wrong, our country has grown so much over the years when it comes to tackling discrimination in the workplace. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just unfortunate that itÃ¢â¬â¢s just not natural for organizations and companies to naturally be ethical and moral when it comes to their treatment of their potential applicants or current employees. There are still cases of discrimination currently in our society. It may not be as severe compared to before the modern civil rights era, but discriminationRead MoreV. Bank Of America Corp Essay935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesemployees in the United States must adhere to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This act prohibits discrimination in employment-related matters and is administered by the Equal Employme nt Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (Canas Sonkak, 2014). In Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. Judy Calibuso filed a complaint against Bank of America with the EEOC in January 2007. Case Law Overview Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. was a gender case that was filed in U.S. DistrictRead MoreEssay on Rhetorical Analysis of Jfk Civil Rights Address862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Civil Rights Address was one of the most influential speeches President John F. Kennedy has ever presented to the American people, and was one of many of his many accomplishments during his presidency. America was experiencing racial discrimination and racial inequality, and Americans needed a leader who would unite them. John F. Kennedy was a sincere, honest, inspirational individual whose duty was to influence equality to Americans. President John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s address inspires and pulls onRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act And Voting Rights1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGrowing up in America, children are taught by their grade school teachers to be proud of being American. They chant Ã¢â¬Å"Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492Ã¢â¬ and harmoniously sing patriotic songs such as Th e Star Spangled Banner while being utterly oblivious of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s corrupt political system. It may not be until one is pursing their final years of high school, or perhaps even in college when they are aware of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history of possessing a highly restrictive political system. For
On the culture shock in the film of Gua Sha Culture shock was introduced to descried the anxiety produced when a person moves to a completely new environment, especially when a person arrives in a new country where he is confronted with a new cultural environment. In our modern society, more and more people get this sick. You step into a new culture world. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study on Comparison Between Chinese Values and American Values or any similar topic only for you Order Now Everything around you is new. You begin to adapt. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of at least one of five distinct phases: Honeymoon, Negotiation, Adjustment, Mastery and Independence, are the most common attributes that pertain to existing problems, further hindrances include: information overload, language barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence, formulation dependency, homesickness, infinite regress, boredom, response ability. There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts differently. But, this process takes time. Generally speaking, culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Culture shock involved two aspects: physical symptoms of culture shock and psychological symptoms of culture shock. And, how can we cure culture shock? The first coping mechanism is called Ã¢â¬Å"repression. Ã¢â¬ This happens when we pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers us. The second one is called Ã¢â¬Å"regression. Ã¢â¬ We forget everything, and something we become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called Ã¢â¬Å"isolation. Ã¢â¬ It is one of the worst coping mechanisms we can use because it separates us from those things that could really help us. Grandfather Xu comes from China to visit the family of his son, Datong Xu, in St. Louis. While there, he gives his grandson, Dennis Xu , a treatment of Gua Sha to treat a slight fever. The authorities, however, mistake the harmless traditional Chinese medical treatment for child abuse due to the obvious marks left on DennisÃ¢â¬â¢ back. The family goes through hell when the child is taken away by the child protection agency. Meanwhile, Grandfather Xu leaves America because he finds that the living environment is really not suitable for him, as he feels that a simple, harmless treatment like Gua Sha, which is so common in China, is treated as child abuse in America. Furthermore, he cannot converse in English. An American friend of the father, Benton Davi), tries gua sha and proves that the treatment leaves painful-looking marks that are not actually painful or harmful at all. Finally, the father is able to return home and the family is reunited. Returning to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home culture after growing accustomed to a new one can produce the same effects as described above. This results from the psychosomatic and psychological consequences of the readjustment process to the primary culture. The affected person often finds this more surprising and difficult to deal with than the original culture shock. This phenomenon, the reactions that members of the re-entered culture exhibit toward the re-entrant, and the inevitability of the two are encapsulated in the saying Ã¢â¬Å"you canÃ¢â¬â¢t go home again,Ã¢â¬ first coined by Thomas Wolfe in his book of that title. Honeymoon phase During this period, the differences between the old and new culture are seen in a romantic light. For example, in moving to a new country, an individual might love the new food, the pace of life, and the localsÃ¢â¬â¢ habits. During the first few weeks, most people are fascinated by the new culture. They associate with nationals who speak their language, and who are polite to the foreigners. This period is full of observations and new discoveries. Like most honeymoon periods, this stage after some time, differences between the old and new culture become apparent and may create anxiety. Excitement may eventually give way to unpleasant feelings of frustration and anger as one continues to experience unfavorable events that may be perceived as strange and offensive to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural attitude. Language barriers, stark differences in public hygiene, traffic safety, food accessibility and quality may heighten the sense of disconnection from the surroundings. While being transferred into a different environment puts special pressure on communication skills, there are practical difficulties to overcome, such as circadian rhythm disruption that often leads to insomnia and daylight drowsiness; adaptation of gut flora to different bacteria levels and concentrations in food and water; difficulty in seeking treatment for illness, as medicines may have different names from the native countryÃ¢â¬â¢s and the same active ingredients might be hard to recognize. Still, the most important change in the period is communication: People adjusting to a new culture often feel lonely and homesick because they are not yet used to the new environment and meet people with whom they are not familiar every day. The language barrier may become a major obstacle in creating new relationships: special attention must be paid to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s and othersÃ¢â¬â¢ culture-specific body language signs, linguistic faux pas, conversation tone, linguistic nuances and customs, and false fries. In the case of Gua Sha, some develop additional symptoms of loneliness that ultimately affect their lifestyles as a whole. Due to the strain of living in a different country without parental support, international students often feel anxious and feel more pressure while adjusting to new culturesÃ¢â¬âeven more so when the cultural distances are wide, as patterns of logic and speech are different and a special emphasis is put on rhetoric. Again, after some time, one grows accustomed to the new culture and develops routines. One knows what to expect in most situations and the host country no longer feels all that new. One becomes concerned with basic living again, and things become more Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ . One starts to develop problem-solving skills for dealing with the culture and begins to accept the cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s ways with a positive attitude. The culture begins to make sense, and negative reactions and responses to the culture are reduced. In the mastery stage assignees are able to participate fully and comfortably in the host culture. Mastery does not mean total conversion; people often keep many traits from their earlier culture, such as accents and languages. It is often referred to as the biculturalism stage. You step into a new cultural world. Everything around you is new. We should devise defense mechanisms to help us cope with the effects of culture shock. How to cite A Study on Comparison Between Chinese Values and American Values, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Watch List Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Trouble with the Terrorist Watch List DatabaseÃ¢â¬ 1. Please read the case study that starts on the next page. 2. Answer all 5 questions below. 1. What Information Systems concepts are illustrated in this case? 2. Why was the consolidated terror watch list created? What are the communication benefits of the list? (Comm) 3. Describe some of the weaknesses of the watch list. What management, organization, and technology factors are responsible for these weaknesses? 4.What steps would you take to correct some of the weaknesses identified in question 3? 5. Do you believe that the watch list represents a significant threat to individualÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy or Constitutional rights? Why or why not? Discuss the importance of business communication ethics in this case. Chapter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and .. ,? ~;,,,:,~,,:,::q7 !69 , , ~' ~~ ~ Y)~ ~ , . Trouble with the TerJorist Watch l. ist DatabaSc:! t~~A;jAt1IHt . w~ ~ , Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢. . ~1 :, , _ ~ ,1 eASE STUDY ,, d: , ,~ ~ ,. n the aftermath ofthe 9-11 attacks, both critics and defenders of the information systems employed by the U. S. intelligence community united to help analyze where things went wrong and how to prevent future terrorist incidents. The FBIs Thrrorist Screening Center, or TSC, was established to organize and standardize information about suspected terrorists between multiple government agencies into a single list to enhance communication between agencies.A database of suspected terrorists known as the terrorist watch list was born from these efforts in 2003 in response to criticisms that multiple agencies were maintaining separate lists and that these agencies lacked a consistent process to share relevant information concerning the individuals on each agencys list. Records in the TSC database contain sensitive but unclassified information on terrorist identities, such as name and date ofbirth, that can be shared with other screening agencies. Classified information about the people in the watch list is maintained in other law enforcement and intelligence agency databases.Records for the watch list database are provided by two sources: the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) managed by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence provides identifying information on individuals with ties to international terrorism. The FBI provides identifying information on individuals with ties to purely domestic terrorism. These agencies collect and maintain terrorist information and nominate individuals for inclusion in the TSCs consolidated watch list. They are required to follow strict procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the U. S. Attorney General.TSC staff must review each record submitted before it is added to the database. An individual will remain on the watch list until the respective department or agency that nominated that person to the list determines that the person should be removed fr om the list and deleted from its database. The watch list database is updated daily with new nominations, modifications to existing records, and deletions. The list has grown to over 750,000 records since its creation and is continuing to grow at a rate of 200,000 records each year since 2004. lnforn:ation on the list is distributed to a wide range of gow:rn- I ent agency systems for use in efforts to deter or detect the movements of known or suspected terrorists, including the FBI, CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), 1tansportation Security Administration (TSA), U. S. Department of Homeland Security, State Department, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, Secret Service, U. S. Marshals Service, and the White House, among others. Airlines use data supplied by the TSA system in their NoFly and Selectee lists for prescreening passengers, while the U. S. Customs and Border Protection system uses the watch list data to help screen travelers entering the United States.The State Departmen t system screens applicants for visas to enter the United States and U. S. residents applying for passports, while state and local law enforcement agencies use the FBI system to help with arrests, detentions, and other criminal justice activities. Each of these agencies receives the subset of data in the watch list that pertains to its specific mission. For example, records on U. S. citizens and lawful permanent residents are not exported to the State Department system for screening visa applicants because these individuals would not apply for a U. S. visa.All of these databases require certain minimum biographic or identifying data to accept records from the consolidated watch list. When an individual makes an airline reservation arrives at a U. S. port of entry, applies for a U. S. visa, or is stopped by state or local police within the United States, the frontline screening agency or airline conducts a name-based search of the individual against the records in the terrorist watch list database. When the computerized name-matching system generates a hit (a potential name match) against a watch list record, the airline or agency will review each potential match.The agency or airline is supposed to resolve any obvious mismatches that crop up. Matches that are clearly positive or exact matches that are inconclusive (uncertain or difficult to verify) are referred to the applicable screening agencys intelligence or operations center and to the TSC for closer examination. In turn, TSC checks its databases and other sources, including classified databases maintained by the NCTC and FBI, to confirm whether the individual is a positive, negative, or inconclusive match to the watch list record.TSC creates a daily report summarizing all J 270 Part Two Information Technology Infrastructure positive matches to the watch list and distributes them to numerous federal agencies. While the unification of various terrorism watch lists has been a positive step towards streamlin ing the process oflocating and apprehending terrorists, the project has been a slow and painstaking one, requiring the integration of at least 12 different databases. ! Wo years after the process ofintegration took place, 10 of the 12 databases had been processed.The remaining two databases (the u. s. Immigration and Customs Enforcements Automatic Biometric Identification System and the FBIs Integrated Fingerprint Identification System) are both fingerprint databases, and not technically watch lists. There is still more work to be done to optimize the lists usefulness. The TSCs list has introduced new issues and concerns regarding the adequacy ofthe information systems involved in the maintenance and usage of terrorism-related data.Reports from both the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the Office of the Inspector General confirm that the list contains inaccuracies and that policies for nomination and removal from the lists are not uniform between governmental departments. There has also been public outcry resulting from the size of the list and well-publicized incidents of obvious non-terrorists finding that they are included on the list.Information about the process for inclusion on the list must necessarily be carefully protected if the list is to be effective against terrorists; if the algorithms behind the list were public knowledge, terrorists could more easily avoid detection, defeating the lists purpose. On the other hand, for innocent people who are unnecessarily inconvenienced, the inability to ascertain how they came to be on the list is upsetting. Given the lists large size and constant growth rate one major criticism is that the criteria for inclusion on the list may be too minimal.While the specific criteria for inclusion on the list are not public knowledge, government agencies populate their watch lists by performing wide sweeps of information gathered on travelers, using many misspellings and alternate variations of the names of suspe cted terrorists. This often leads to the inc! usion of people that do not belong on watch lists, known as false positives. It also results in some people being listed multiple times under different spellings of their names, so the 750,000 records do not correspond to 750,000 different individuals.Reports indicate that certain individuals may have as many I as 50 different records on the list due to various aliases and alternate spellings of their names. From December 2003 through May 2007, individuals were positively matched to watch lists 53,000 times. Many individuals were matched multiple times. While these selection cliteria may be effective for tracking as many potential terrorists as possible, they also lead to many more erroneous entries on the list than if the process required more finely-tuned information to add new entries.Notable examples of false positives include U. S. Marine Daniel Brown, who was stopped at the airport for additional screening after an 8-month tour in Iraq; senator Ted Kennedy, who has been repeatediy delayed in the past because his name resembles an alias once used by a suspected terrorist; and John Anderson, a 6-year old boy who was stopped at an airport for additional investigation despite his young age. Like Kennedy, Anderson may have been added because his name is the same or similar to a different suspected terrorist.These incidents call attention to the quality and accuracy of the data in the TSC consolidated watch list. In June 2005, a report by the Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of the Inspector General found inconsistent record counts, duplicate records, and records that lacked data fields or had unclear sources for their data. Although TSC subsequently enhanced its efforts to identifY and correct incomplete or inaccurate watch list records, the Inspector General noted in September 2007 that TSC management of the watch list still showed some weaknesses.Critics of the list question whether or not a list that will soo n grow to over a million entries could have any real usefulness or significance in apprehending terrorists. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has been a vocal critic of the size of the list, claiming that it harasses and needlessly violates the privacy of thousands of people in an effort to monitor the movements of a decidedly smaller group of suspects. Senator Joe Lieberman, the Chairman of the Homeland Security Committee, said of the list that serious hurdles remain if it is to be as effective as e need it to be. Some of the concerns stem from its rapid growth, which could call into question the quality ofthe list itself. Given the option between a list that tracks every potential terrorist at the cost of unnecessarily tracking some innocents, and a list that fails to track many terrorists in an effort to avoid tracking innocents, many would choose the list that tracked every terrorist despite the drawbacks. But to make matters worse for those already inconvenienced by Ch apter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management 71 wrongful inclusion on the list, there is currently no simple and quick redress process for innocents that hope to remove themselves from it. The number of requests for removal from the watch list continues to mount, with over 24,000 requests recorded (about 2,000 each month) and only 54% of them resolved. The average time to process a request in 2008 is 40 days, which, although a mild improvement from 44 days in November 2007, is not fast enough to keep pace with the number of requests for removal coming in.As a result, lawabiding travelers that inexplicably find themselves on the watch list are left with no easy way to remove themselves from it. In February 2007, the Department of Homeland Security instituted its Itaveler Redress Inquiry Program (TRIP) to help people that have been erroneously added to terrorist watch lists remove themselves and avoid extra screening and questioning. John Anderson s mother claimed that despite her best efforts, she was unable to remove her son from the watch lists.Senator Kennedy reportedly was only able to remove himself from the list by personally bringing up the matter to Thm Ridge, then the Director of the Department of Homeland Security. Security officials say that mistakes such as the one that led to Anderson and Kennedys inclusion on no-fly and consolidated watch lists occur due to the matching of imperfect data in airline reservation systems with imperfect data on the watch lists. Many airlines dont include gender, middle name, or date ofbirth in their reservations records, which increases the likelihood offalse matches.While government agencies have been able to synchronize their data into a single list, there is still more work to be done to integrate that list with those maintained by airlines, individual states, and other localities using more information to differentiate individuals. The TSA is continuing to update their screenin g process so that the government, not individual airlines, is responsible for matching travelers to watch lists. Privacy is yet another concern surrounding the watch list.One way to improve screening and help reduce the number of people erroneously marked for additional investigation would be to use a more sophisticated system involving more personal data about individuals on the list. The TSA is developing just such a system, called Secure Flight, but it has been continually delayed due to privacy concerns regarding the sensitivity and safety of the data it would collect. Other similar surveillance programs and watch lists, such as the NSAs attempts to gather information about suspected terrorists, have drawn criticism for potential privacy violations.Additionally, the watch list has drawn criticism because of its potential to promote racial profiling and discrimination. Some allege that they were included by virtue of their race and ethnic descent, such as David Fathi, an attorney for the ACLU of Iranian descent, and Asif Iqbal, a U. S. citizen of Pakistani decent with the same name as a Guantanamo detainee. Outspoken critics of U. S. foreign policy, such as some elected officials and university professors, have also found themselves on the list. A report issued in March 2008 by DOJ Inspector General Glenn A.Fine and reports from the GAO also indicated that the FBI lacked standard and consistent procedures for nominatiug individuals to the list, perfOlming modifications to information, and relaying those changes to other governmental offices. The FBI sometimes delayed updating the list with new information or removing people from the list who were no longer deemed a threat. Nominations from FBI field offices were sometimes inaccurate or incomplete. FBI field offices submitted names of people who were not subjects ofterrorism investigations directly to the NCTC, bypassing the required headquarters review that could catch errors.FBI officials claim that the bu reau has made improvements, and now requires field office supervisors to review watch-list nominations for accuracy and completeness. Some non-FBI offices, including the Drug Enforcement Administration; the Bureau of Alcohol, Thbacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF); and others reported that they did not believe themselves to be a part of the watch list information process, or that they disagreed with the FBI over what constituted terrorist activity.Many DOJ offices acquire terrorism-related information that would help the FBI in populating the watch list, but share that information in an informal way and sometimes not at all. Improved coordination between the FBI and other intelligence agencies would go a long way towards improving the quality and efficacy of the terror watch list. The TSC is taking actions to improve watch list data and procedures for managing these data. The sooner, the better-in early 2008 it was revealed that 20 known terrorists were not correctly listed on 72 PartTwo Information Technology Infrastructure the consolidated watch list (whether these individuals were able to enter the U. S. as a result is unclear). Sources: Bob Egelko, Watch-list Name Confusion Causes Hardship, San Francisco Chronicle, March 20, 2008; Siobhan Gorman, NSAs Domestic Spying Grows as Agency Sweeps Up Data, The Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2008; Ellen Nakasliima, Reports Cite Lack of Uniform Policy for Terrorist Watch List, The Washington Post, March 18, 2008; Scott McCartney, When Your Name is Mud at the Airport, The Wall Street Journal,January 29, 2008; Audrey Hudson, Airport Watch List NowReviewed Often, The Washington Times, April 11, 2008; Mimi Hall, 15,000 Want Off the U. S. Terror Watch List, USA Today, November 8, 2007 and Terror Watch List Swells to More Than 755,000, USA The/ay, October 23, 2007; Justice Department Report Tells of Flaws in Terrorist Watch List, CNN. com, September 7, 2007; Burt Helm, The Terror Watch Lists Tangle, Businessweek. com, M ay 11, 2005, Paul RoÃ «enzweig and Jeff Jonas, Correcting False Positives: Redress and the Watch List Conundrum,The Heritage Foundation, June 17, 2005.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Fujiwhara Effect - Two Hurricanes Interacting The Fujiwara Effect is an interesting phenomenon which can happen when two or more hurricanes form very near each other. In 1921, a Japanese meteorologist named Dr. Sakuhei Fujiwhara determined that two storms will sometimes move around a common center pivot point. The National Weather Service defines the Fujiwhara Effect as the tendency of two nearby tropical cyclones to rotate cyclonically about each other. Another slightly more technical definition of the Fujiwhara Effect from the National Weather Service is a binary interaction where tropical cyclones within a certain distance (300-750 nautical miles depending on the sizes of the cyclones) of each other begin to rotate about a common midpoint. The effect is also known as the Fujiwara Effect without an Ã¢â¬ËhÃ¢â¬â¢ in the name. FujiwharaÃ¢â¬â¢s studies indicate storms will rotate around a common center of mass. A similar effect is seen in the rotation of the Earth and moon. This barycenter is the center pivot point around which two rotating bodies in space will spin. The specific location of this center of gravity is determined by the relative intensity of the tropical storms. This interaction will sometimes lead to tropical storms dancing with each other around the dance floor of the ocean. Examples of the Fujiwhara Effect In 1955, two hurricanes formed very near each other. Hurricanes Connie and Diane at one point seemed to be one huge hurricane. The vortices were moving around each other in a counterclockwise motion. In September 1967, Tropical storms Ruth and Thelma began to interact with each other as they approached Typhoon Opal. At the time, satellite imagery was in its infancy as TIROS, the worlds first weather satellite, was only launched in 1960. To date, this was the best imagery of the Fujiwhara Effect yet seen. In July of 1976, hurricanes Emmy and Frances also showed the typical dance of the storms as they interacted with each other. Another interesting event occurred in 1995 when four tropical waves formed in the Atlantic. The storms would later be named Humberto, Iris, Karen, and Luis. A satellite image of the 4 tropical storms shows each of the cyclones from left to right. Tropical storm Iris was heavily influenced by the formation of Humberto before it, and Karen after it. Tropical Storm Iris moved through the islands of the northeastern Caribbean during late August and produced locally heavy rains and associated flooding according to the NOAA National Data Center. Iris later absorbed Karen on September 3, 1995 but not before altering the paths of both Karen and Iris. Hurricane Lisa was a storm that formed on September 16, 2004 as a tropical depression. The depression was located between Hurricane Karl to the west and another tropical wave to the southeast. As hurricane Karl influenced Lisa, the quickly approaching tropical disturbance to the east moved in on Lisa and the two began to show a Fujiwhara Effect. Cyclones Fame and Gula are shown in an image from January 29, 2008. The two storms formed just days apart. The storms briefly interacted, although they remained separate storms. Initially, it was thought the two would exhibit more of a Fujiwhara interaction, but despite weakening a bit, the storms stayed intact without causing the weaker of the two storms to dissipate. Sources: Stormchasers: The Hurricane Hunters and Their Fateful Flight Into Hurricane JanetNOAA National Data CenterAnnual Summary of the 2004 Atlantic Hurricane SeasonAnnual Summary of the 1995 Atlantic Hurricane SeasonMonthly Weather Review: An Example of the Fujiwhara Effect in the West Pacific OceanNASA Earth Observatory: Cyclone GulaCyclones Olaf and Nancy
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Legal Drinking Age in Canada The legal drinking age in Canada is the minimum age at which a person is allowed to buy and drink alcohol, and right now it is 18 for Alberta, Manitoba, and QuÃ ©bec and 19 for the rest of the country. In Canada, each province and territoryÃ determines its own legal drinking age. LegalÃ Drinking Age in Canadas Provinces and TerritoriesÃ Alberta: 18British Columbia: 19Manitoba: 18New Brunswick: 19Newfoundland and Labrador: 19Northwest Territories: 19Nova Scotia: 19Nunavut: 19Ontario: 19Prince Edward Island: 19QuÃ ©bec: 18Ã Saskatchewan: 19Yukon Territory: 19 Growing Concern About Alcohol Overconsumption A growing problem of rising and overconsumption of alcohol, particularly among young adults just at the legal drinking age, has raised alarms in Canada.Ã Since 2000 andÃ the release of the Canada Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines in 2011, the first such national guidelines, many Canadians have been on a mission to reduce alcohol consumption across the board. Much research has been done on how harmful even moderate alcohol consumption can be and theÃ serious long-term effects onÃ young adults ages 18/19Ã¢â¬â24, when risky alcohol consumption peaks.Ã The Effect of Canadian Drinking-Age Laws A 2014 study by a scientist with the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) Faculty of Medicine concludes that CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s drinking-age laws have a significant impact on youth mortality. Writing in the international journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Dr. Russell Callaghan, a UNBCÃ Associate Professor of Psychiatry, argues that, when compared to Canadian males slightly younger than the minimum legal drinking age, young men who are just older than the drinking age have significant and abrupt increases in mortality, especially from injuries and motor vehicle accidents. Ã¢â¬Å"This evidence demonstrates that drinking-age legislation has a significant effect on reducing mortality among youth, especially young males,Ã¢â¬ says Dr. Callaghan. The minimum legal drinking age is 18 years of age in Alberta, Manitoba, and QuÃ ©bec, and 19 in the rest of the country. Using national Canadian death data from 1980 to 2009, researchers examined the causes of deaths of individuals who died between 16 and 22 years of age. They found that immediately following the minimum legal drinking age, male deaths due to injuries rose sharply by ten to 16 percent, and male deaths due to motor vehicle accidents increased suddenly by 13 to 15 percent. Increases in mortality also appeared immediately following the legislated drinking age for 18-year-old females, but these jumps were relatively small. According to the research, increasing the drinking age to 19 in Alberta, Manitoba, and QuÃ ©bec would prevent seven deaths of 18-year-old men each year. Raising the drinking age to 21 across the country would prevent 32 annual deaths of male youth 18 to 20 years old. Ã¢â¬Å"Many provinces, including British Columbia, are undertaking alcohol-policy reforms,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Callaghan said. Ã¢â¬Å"Our research shows that there are substantial social harms associated with youth drinking. These adverse consequences need to be carefully considered when we develop new provincial alcohol policies. I hope these results will help inform the public and policymakers in Canada about the serious costs associated with hazardous drinking among young people.Ã¢â¬ High CanadianÃ Alcohol Prices Tempt Importers There has been a movement to encourage lower consumption byÃ increasing or maintaining the overall priceÃ of alcohol through interventions, such as excise taxes and indexing prices to inflation. Such pricing, according to the Canadian Center on Substance Abuse, would encourage production and consumption of lower-strength alcoholic beverages. Establishing minimum prices, the CCSA said, could remove inexpensive sources of alcohol often favored by young adults and other high-risk drinkers. Higher prices are seen as a disincentive to youth drinking, but lower-priced alcohol is readily available across the border in the United States. BothÃ visitors and Canadians are tempted to bring in large quantities of alcoholic beverages bought in the United States, which can be about half the price of such drinks in Canada.Ã How Much Duty-Free Alcohol Can Visitors Bring?Ã¢â¬â¹ If you are a Canadian or a visitor to Canada, you are allowed to bring a small quantity of alcohol (wine, liquor, beer, or coolers) into the country without having to pay duty or taxes as long as: the alcohol accompanies you.you meet the minimumÃ legal drinking ageÃ for the province or territory at which you enter Canada.Ã Canadians and visitorsÃ may bring inÃ onlyÃ one of the following.Ã If larger quantities are imported, the entire amount will assess duties, not just the amount exceeding these duty-free quantities: 1.5 liters (50.7 U.S. fluid ounces) of wine, including wine coolers over 0.5 percent alcohol. This is equivalent to (up to) 53 fluid ounces or two 750 ml bottles of wine.Ã 1.14 liters (38.5 US fluid ounces) of liquor. This is equivalent toÃ (up to)Ã 40 fluid ouncesÃ or one large standard bottle of liquor.Ã Up to 8.5 liters of beer or ale, including beer coolers with more than 0.5 percent alcohol. This is equivalent to 287.4 US fluid ounces or about 24 cans or bottles (355 ml or 12.004 US fluid ounces each). For CanadiansÃ returning after a stay in the U.S., the amount of personal exemption is dependent on how long an individual was out of the country. The highest exemptions accrue after stays of more than 48 hours. If Canadians have been on a day trip to the United States,Ã all the alcohol brought back to Canada will be subject to the usual duties and taxes.Ã In 2012, Canada changed exemption limits to more closely match those of the U.S. Source Callaghan, Russell. Canadian Drinking-Age Laws Have Significant Effect on Deaths Among Young Males. Matt Wood, Newsroom, University of Northern British Columbia, March 18, 2014, BC Canada. Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. Youth Alcohol Use and Its Harms: Case Study in the Community of Sherbrooke (Report). Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction, 2018, ON Canada.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Macroeconomics - Term Paper - Essay Example In the regulation of the money in circulation, central bank makes adjustments to the interest rate that entails the price of borrowing money. This paper keenly discusses fiscal and monetary policies theories and application. Fiscal policy In their efforts to regulate spending and maintain taxation at an affordable level, governments emulates three types of fiscal policies. The first one is neutral fiscal policy. This type of policy is adopted when the economy is in equilibrium. One of the key aspects of neutral fiscal policy is that all the fund that the government uses to establish projects such as roads, factories, ports among others, is full obtained from tax revenue (Hansen 34). Another type of fiscal policy that government can use to achieve economic development is the expansionary fiscal policy. This entails a situation whereby government spending exceeds tax collected from the residents. This will mean that governments must look for donors to fund them so that they are able to maintain their economy at a competitive level. The policy must be looked keenly to make sure that funds borrowed from the donors are not diverted to other unplanned project .The third policy is contractionary fiscal policy. ... The federal government controls how the money is shared according to the financial year and how they have planned for the budget. The budget must be gone through by the stake holders that include president and the congress. The two bodies must work together so as to come with a comprehensive report that is going to make life bearable to its citizens (Larch and Nogueira 46). The president makes sure that the proposed budget is passed to the congress so that they can decide how much money the government is going to spend on public needs for example, the issue of security is a problem world wide and health care .On the other hand expansionary fiscal policy is commonly used by the federal government to make sure that their business problems are stabilized. Another application area in expansionary policy is the issue of unemployment to its citizens. The unemployed high number of people has to borrow money and return the same money with low interest. In contrast, contractionary fiscal poli cy is mainly used by the central bank or the finance ministry to make sure that the rapid economy growth of a country is put under control. This means that the government must come up with the measures to control it. The government has to increase the interest rates, the central bank then regulates the money their customers are going to deposit and the notes the other bank are going to hold. Monetary policy Monetary policy refers to the process by which the government through central bank regulates the money supply to its citizens with aim of controlling price fluctuations (Heyne et al, 19). This means that the government must make sure that the prices of commodities are stable. The government must still ensure that the interest rates and exchanges rates are guarded fully against