Monday, August 24, 2020

10 Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty Essay Example for Free

10 Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty Essay Blamelessness and the Death Penalty The unfair execution of an honest individual is a bad form that can never be corrected. Since the reestablishment of capital punishment, 139 people have been discharged from death row broadly. The High Cost of the Death Penalty It costs unquestionably more to execute an individual than to save that person in jail forever. Capital punishment Can Prolong Suffering for Victims Families Numerous relatives who have lost love ones to kill feel that capital punishment won't recuperate their injuries nor will it end their torment; the all-inclusive legitimate procedure before executions can draw out the desolation experienced by the casualties families. Worldwide Views on the Death Penalty By far most of nations in Western Europe, North America and South America in excess of 139 countries worldwide have relinquished the death penalty in law or by and by. Deficient Legal Representation Maybe the most significant factor in deciding if a respondent will get capital punishment is the nature of the portrayal the individual is given. Discouragement Logical examinations have reliably neglected to exhibit that executions dissuade individuals from carrying out wrongdoing any longer than long jail sentences. Assertion in the Application of the Death Penalty Governmental issues, nature of legitimate guidance and the ward where a wrongdoing is carried out are all the more frequently the deciding elements in a capital punishment case than the realities of the wrongdoing itself. Strict Perspectives on the Death Penalty Albeit segregated sections of strict sacred writing have been cited on the side of capital punishment, practically all strict gatherings in the United States see executions as shameless. Racial Disparities The race of the person in question and the race of the litigant in capital cases are main considerations in figuring out who is condemned to bite the dust in this nation. In 1990 a report from the General Accounting Office reasoned that in 82 percent of the investigations [reviewed], race of the casualty was found to impact the probability of being accused of capital homicide or accepting capital punishment, for example the individuals who killed whites were bound to be condemned to death than the individuals who killed blacks. Options in contrast to the Death Penalty In each express that holds capital punishment, members of the jury have the alternative of condemning sentenced capital killers to life in jail without the chance of parole. The sentence is less expensive to citizens and saves rough guilty parties off the boulevards for good.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Poor Behaviour To Manage Education Essay

Poor Behavior To Manage Education Essay A lamentable term, maybe, conduct the executives, it infers that from the beginning there will be poor conduct to oversee, and that we have blocked much about an understudy or partner by thinking about administration of conduct from the start. 1.0The truth however is that in the event that we have not thought about it by any means, we will cause issues and clamor among ourselves and our understudies. A lot of that which we never would need to happen will happen on the off chance that we don't, at the very beginning, look to comprehend; to give systems of conduct to follow for both the student and the mentor to assemble trust and regard on the two sides. We should inspect what is implied by conduct the executives, the components engaged with wide terms, and what we look to accomplish by it. 1.0 No student comes to us as a clear sheet. No individual is a clear sheet. We are not a clear sheet. We will have past understanding, and dependent on that past experience we make an expectation of what will occur straightaway. It will influence how we respond, and how our understudies respond. 4.1 Knowing this makes the guide the most persuasive piece of the learning experience. 3.1Adopting the right position and system for the psychodynamics at work inside a homeroom is urgent on the off chance that we are to give a positive and powerful learning condition and learning experience. 1.0 Getting the elements wrong will prompt students withdrawing, getting fretful, going to gravely and defying guidelines of direct and control concurred at the beginning. 3.1 Careful thoughtfulness regarding behaviorism in structure, arrangement and in acknowledgment of it in the students is in a general sense significant for building up a domain that will be behaviourally steady. 2.0/3.1 Rules, that should be concurred with students in the event that they are to be powerful, will incorporate hierarchical strategy rules. These are probably going to be manages over which there is little scope for development and give the system around which the understandings are organized. 3.1 2.0Attendance, for instance, administers on harassing and regard, inclusivity and assorted variety. Appraisal techniques, proficient principles and individual conduct, jobs and duties. 3.1 2.0 They will likewise incorporate disciplinary methodology that are clear and reasonable, organized to advance re-commitment and distinguish foundations for fluctuating from the implicit rules with the goal that unmistakable targets can be set to recapture great conduct. 2.0/3.1Without the structure of arrangement rules would seem one-sided and along these lines polarizing. 2.0/3.1 Understanding that the understudy and the guide are bound under similar standards is a binding together encounter, and assists 3.1learners with building a compatibility with their coach without the obstruction of a superfluously enraptured relationship. 3.1Yet the advantage of clear lines and limits exist for each gathering to depend on. Christine Richmond (Rogers, August 2002) (page 58) 3.1 1.0 As I have stated, no student comes as clear sheet. Most will have encountered positive encounters in instruction, alongside negative ones now and again. Others will have had almost no positive involvement with all. This will influence their desires for what will occur as far as they can tell. 1.0 If the guidelines didnt assist them with accomplishing last time, for what reason would it be a good idea for them to comply with any principles this time? 1.0Perhaps not complying with the standards will show signs of improvement results? 1.0 If an understudy has been avoided previously, they may expect it once more, and would prefer you just continued ahead with it. 1.0 Some have not accomplished well before for an assortment of components, in the event that they believe they are not liable to accomplish they might be problematic to dodge disappointment later on; not doing a task doesnt mean they were not equipped for it, they decided to not do it as a test to the standard, taking resp onsibility for on their footing in a progressively satisfactory structure. (Mill operator, 2002)(Andy Miller/Bill Rogers 2002 (page 69) 3.1 The examination alluded to above identifies with tending to this right on time, on the principal day your understudies are with you. Now they have no affinity with you, all they know is their past experience and maybe will foresee that you will be the same as those past encounters, and that you won't have any kind of effect. 1.0 It might likewise be social factors and companion desire, a longing to be remembered for a group㠢â‚ ¬Ã¢ ¦ every one of these components are a piece of what impacts singular conduct starting piece of an investigation course. 4.1/3.2/3.1 Specifying and clarifying a standard is critical. We could state no talking while your instructor is instructing that is the standard. For understudies with delicate inside controls this is an objective to focus on, a catch to push( paving the way for the schemes of an aloof forceful sort). 3.1We could then again say its significant that everyone hears directions obviously for the most obvious opportunity to accomplish. It would be ideal if you ensure that you can hear, and your neighbors can hear unmistakably while any mentor is giving you guidance with the goal that you comprehend. 4.1/4.2 This is clarifying a similar principle, but on the other hand is clarifying why there is a standard and the advantages to the student of that standard. 3.1There is positively greater probability of collaboration with rules given along these lines, with reason and establishment, instead of as an authoritarian direct. (OBrien, 2002) (2002) showing authority and social administration; page 93 3.1/4.1/4.2/For certain understudies tolerating the guidelines should follow rapidly with a positive outcome from those principles, strengthening it is valuable to them to tail it. This doesn't adhere to that defying the guidelines should bring about censure, yet progressively a token of the standard. 3.1/3.2Moreso, to ask the understudy what the standard is, and why it is a standard, yet without making it a mortifying undertaking. 3.1/4.2Keeping the occasion serene de-raises the any spiraling dissatisfaction. Coming back to the educational program and the exercise objective is the main reason here, not an open win for either side. Coming back to the undertaking is a success for the guide, and a triumph for the student in reconnecting 3.1/3.2/4.2. For certain understudies, there will be no answer for conduct that continually trucks the guidelines, just great administration of it with the goal that it has least effect on the learning for the understudy and students in the partner. 3.2 The humanistic view is that the educator isn't liable for the conduct, just its administration. 3.2/4.2Liberated from the inclination that you should get this class inside the guidelines leaves you allowed to concentrate vitality on the best way to best deal with the conditions and accomplish the educational plan. (Parsons, 2002, p. 117) 4.2/3.2 This doesn't imply that conduct ought to go unchecked, however ought to be centered around calm arrangements that stay away from struggle (which is constantly a dangerous power in relationship assembling) and draw in regard, that encourages relationship building and trust. The guidelines we make for understudies must have the point of security, trust and regard. We ought to ensure our understudies are arriving at the highest point of Maslows chain of importance or needs and that the entirety of our guidelines and approach and elements are tilted distinctly towards empowering learning. In the event that they are not, at that point they can be viewed as rules without significance. 4.1 This doesn't imply that some conduct can't be tested legitimately and openly. 4.2 Dangerous or harsh conduct is frequently best managed rapidly and freely, strengthening to the gathering that they can believe in your authority and guarantee of wellbeing. Continuously, however, ensuring that the fa stest conceivable come back to task is accomplished. 4.2/4.1 Once the episode is halted, it is best at that point to come back to relaxed treatment including a private instructional exercise with the student/violator, a least nosy intercession (Rogers, 2002)page 7. Utilize positive words and proclamations as opposed to negative ones (Braithwaite 2001) et al. (Rogers, August 2002) Christine Richmond 4.2/4.1/3.1 4.1/4.2 We should de-heighten occasions and mediations. At the point when an individual is irate (Teachers included) they can make misguided decisions. Obviously better to make a mediation that profits rapidly to assignment and allow all gatherings to reflect and quiet before tending to teach or remedy in a quiet and cool way, when it is simpler to eloquent and all the more promptly acknowledged on all sides (especially valid for dynamic forceful sorts). 4.2This may incorporate a break, or welcoming the understudy or understudies to stay toward the finish of exercise for an instructional exercise. Staying nonpartisan and quiet can be troublesome however it is an expert basic to accomplish it. 1.0Reflect that the occasion may not be identified with the fundamental reason for the conduct and evaluate it from a humanistic perspective. 1.0 Planning can do a lot to moderate dangers of conduct from the start. Understudies of various foundations, ethnicity, race and religion can be in struggle before they ever sit down in the class. Some might be carrying prior connections and loyalties with them from past schools or universities, or from somewhere else. Having a strategy of rules, over a whole grounds, keeps consistency. 1.0 2.0 3.1 It stays away from the danger of an excessive number of guides and educators applying rules confusingly distinctively giving students sure ground to depend on. 4.2/1.0There are obviously understudies with changing conditions that will show up regularly to violate the line on conduct and will stay unchallenged. We should be cautious that pleasing our gathering profile doesn't subvert decides that all others are required to stick to, but then suit these understudies completely, with the goal that they are incorporated completely and have a similar chance of progress. The procedure ought to be clear and straightforward and remember the student for the arranging as much as is practicable. This may incorporate help experts. (Learning Skills Development Agency, 2007) 4.1/4.2We can do this all the more effectively if all conduct the executives is kept calm and intended to reconnect an understudy to task. 4.2/3.1We should likewise move in the direction of forestalling and mark that the student feels they have been connected to turning into an inevitable outcome. 4.1/4.2Conceptualising conduct as far as Primary, auxiliary and leftover beh

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Are Tattoos Addictive if You Cant Stop at One

Are Tattoos Addictive if You Can't Stop at One October 07, 2019 CommerceandCultureAgency/Taxi/Getty More in Addiction Addictive Behaviors Caffeine Internet Shopping Sex Alcohol Use Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Tattoo addiction is not formally recognized, even as a behavioral addiction. However, some people describe the process of getting more and more tattoos as a kind of addiction. This article explores some of the addictive qualities of becoming tattooed. Financial and Emotional Commitment In a similar way to becoming a drug user, becoming a tattoo collector involves considerable financial commitment, physical discomfort, and social stigma, so, as with drug addiction, it requires devotion to the process. This level of commitment is an important part of all addictions and was explored in detail in the excessive appetites theory of addiction. Not only is a good deal of money invested in the addictive behavior, but the individual will often experience financial difficulty meeting the level of financial commitment required to maintain the addictive behavior. If someone is willing to go through financial hardship as a result of saving for a tattoo, it is an indication that being tattooed has taken on the kind of intense emotional commitment that defies reason, so characteristic of addictive behavior. The behavior makes no sense unless it is understood through the eyes of the person performing the behavior. In this case, the choice to obtain another tattoo is so valuable to the individual, that they are willing to endure hardship and go without things that are much more essential to their basic needs. A Spiritual Process Becoming tattooed, for many, is perceived as a somewhat spiritual process, a form of personal expression. Again, there are overlaps with drug use sub-cultures in this respect, particularly users of marijuana, ecstasy, and psychedelics. Users of each of these types of drugs have described the experience as spiritual, and even cite the spiritual connection they feel with others and with the universe when they are high as a motivation for taking these drugs. Use of Needles The use of needles in tattooing is part of the ritual, which is also an important part of the addiction process. There is an obvious parallel between the voluntary use of needles in tattooing and the use of intravenous drugs. Having a tattoo, or using a needle to inject drugs, is a way of declaring and demonstrating, even to oneself, ones ability to withstand the associated pain and show the stoicism and courage required to follow through. This demonstration of a high level of physical stamina, bravado, and machismo, seems important to the process, regardless of whether the individual is male or female, and is thus a way of disproving any past accusations of weakness or vulnerability. Overlap With Alcohol Use Research measuring alcohol consumption using a breathalyzer shows that people with tattoos and piercings do, in fact, drink higher levels of alcohol than those who do not. Risks and Regrets Addictions can cause people to behave in ways they later regret, but sometimes, it is too late to undo the damage. From drunk driving to family violence, addictions have a well-recognized reputation for causing serious mistakes that can cause harm to oneself or to others. Tattoos can also be a source of regret, although the damage is typically done to ones own body or social status. Unfortunately, both tattooed people and people who do not have tattoos are unaware of many of the risks of tattoos. There are two levels of medical risks to having tattoos, mild and more serious. Mild risks include the kind of side effects that can be treated at home, such a bruising, swelling, and mild skin infections. More serious risks associated with tattoos severe discomfort and pain, inflammation, sensitivity and allergic reactions to tattoo ink.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Philosophy Ethics and the Death Penalty - 1083 Words

Matthew Bojanowski Dr. James Delaney PHI 206 Assignment #4 Ernest Van den Haag strongly contends the need for capital punishment in our society in his article. Van den Haag provides a substantial amount of convincing facts and information to support â€Å"The Ultimate Punishment†. Van den Haag discusses such topics as maldistribution, deterrence to society, miscarriages of the penalty, and incidental and political issues (cost, relative suffering, and brutalization). The death penalty is indeed the harshest/ultimate punishment a convicted criminal can receive in our society. I agree with Van den Haag’s article. I am in favor of the death penalty system in the United States. Through capital punishment’s determent process, I feel it is a†¦show more content†¦But what we can conclude is that any sort of punishment is not intended to compensate or offset a victim’s suffering. Punishment is intended to corroborate with the law and social order that has been established. Another argument against capital punishm ent is expressing the fact that we simply authorize, without question, the murdering through killing of the guilty. Murder is wrong and unlawful killing. Execution, however, is lawful and deserved punishment. Therefore, the physical similarities of murder and execution are irrelevant when arguing capital punishment. Through the normative ethical theory of consequentialism, capital punishment is morally required for society to operate. Supporters of consequentialism believe acts are right based on the positive sequences they produce. Instilling fear into society is vital to capturing people’s attention. As deceiving and immoral as that may sound, it’s the inconceivable truth when dealing with crime and punishment. Therefore, consequentialists are committed to rules that help the betterment of society. Although studies have produced consistently inconclusive evidence to agree or disagree with this statement, I feel a large majority of society fears the ultimate end, death. An example of an effective argument against consequentialism and Van den Haag’s viewpoint in capital punishment is that no amountShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : Imposition Of A Penalty Of Death By The State Essay1271 Words   |  6 PagesCapital punishment: Imposition of a penalty of death by the state. Capital punishment has been widely practiced ever since ancient times, as far back as 1500 B.C. From the fall of Rome to the beginning of modern times, capital punishment has been practiced all over the world. However, the problem in the justice system is that the death penalty can be wrongfully applied. This is rare but it does happen, the falsely incriminated is sentenced and executed. It is important that the government stillRead MoreThe Dilemma Of The Death Penalty1703 Words   |  7 Pagesdilemma of the death penalty in the philosophical outlooks of Utilitarianism and Deontology, present arguments in light of both, and proceed to show why Deontology offers the best insights into the justification for the death penalty. The death penalty, also known as â€Å"capital punishment†, is, â€Å"the sentence of execution for murder and some other capital crimes (serious crimes, especially murder, which are punishable by death).† (Death Penalty Law, Law And Legal Definition). The death penalty has existedRead MoreCapital Punishment Should Not Be Legal950 Words   |  4 Pagesreleased from death row since 1973. There has been many more people that were not released but executed and possibly innocent. Kantian ethics is the theory that says the moral actions are not determined by the consequences but by the right nature of the action. Capital punishment may be questionable with some cases of innocents, with that being said the use of capital punishment should only be used with cases to be absolute guilt. Capital punishment is also known as the death penalty, where someoneRead More The Ethics of Capital Punishment Essay1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe Ethics of Capital Punishment Ethics is the study of standards of right and wrong; that part of philosophy dealing with moral conduct, duty and judgement.[1] Capital Punishment is the death penalty for a crime.[2] The word capital in capital punishment refers to a persons head as in the past; people were often executed by severing their head from their body. Since the early 1800s, most executions have resulted from convictions for murder. The death penaltyRead MoreDeath Penalty : An Ethical Dilemma1184 Words   |  5 Pages Death Penalty: An Ethical Dilemma Philosophy branch which streamlines, protects and guides the concepts of being correct or incorrect is referred as Ethics. People learn this concept from their parents who got it from their parents and it is a chain. However philosophers claim that it is people’s belief which decide ethics along with human intuition. An individual at singular level conscientiously decides what is right and wrong and define a limit of pushing ethical behaviour and moralityRead MoreThe Death Penalty On The Criminal Justice System1491 Words   |  6 PagesWhat place does the death penalty have in the criminal justice system? Should it be used to deter other criminals, should it be used to punish those who commit crimes, or does it have any place at all? In understanding the issue of the death penalty from a moral perspective, it is important to look back at philosophers of the past to better understand the ethical ramifications of the concept of capital punishment. We will be examining two nota ble philosophers—Aristotle and Immanuel Kant. ThroughRead MorePhilosophy and Religion in Education Essay1166 Words   |  5 PagesPhilosophy and Religion in Education The education mission of the philosophy and religion department serves the general studies core and the major. The department takes seriously its obligation to introduce general studies students to philosophy and religion as humanities disciplines. All courses at the 100 and 200 level are open to and designedRead MoreNo Moral Rule Is Absolute909 Words   |  4 PagesAbsolute The simple definition of Utilitarianism is â€Å"the belief that a morally good action is one that helps the greatest number of people†(Utilitarianism, ). However, Utilitarianism is far from a ‘simple’ philosophy, and while there is no perfect doctrine when it comes to Normative Ethics, Utilitarianism comes the closest for a number of reasons. The first is impartiality; or rather equality of concern for everyone’s well-being. The second is that Utilitarianism is not based in religion. The thirdRead MorePunishment Philosophies1704 Words   |  7 PagesPunishment Philosophies Abstract The processes by which justice is applied are determined largely by proposed punishment philosophies. These express various concerns and arguments regarding appropriate sentencing and treatment. The philosophy of rehabilitation dominates the proceedings of juvenile courts, and is heavily scrutinized at an adult level, or when the criminal behavior of juveniles continues to accelerate, butRead MoreSecular Humanism - Death Penalty1046 Words   |  5 PagesDate: 15.03.2011 Death Penalty from a Secular Humanist Point of View The United States remains in the minority of nations in the world that still uses death as penalty for certain crimes. Many see the penalty as barbaric and against American values. Others see it as a very important tool in fighting violent pre-meditated murder. From my point of view as a secular humanist, death penalty should be banned as a form of punishment. Secular humanism is a philosophical school of thought that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discrimination and Civil Rights in America Essay - 701 Words

â€Å" Civil rights is the term that refers to the right of every person to equal access to society’s opportunities and public facilities.† Civil rights is used to imply that the state has a positive role in ensuring all citizens equal protection under law and equal opportunity to exercise the privileges of citizenship and to participate fully in life regardless of race, sex, religion, or other characters unrelated to the value of the individual. According to Webster’s Dictionary, the definition of civil rights is â€Å"the right s to personal liberty and to legal, economic, and social equality establish by amendments to the U.S. Constitution and by certain Congressional acts.† (Merriam-Webster) Civil rights have to with whether individual†¦show more content†¦Inequality is built into almost every aspect of our society. Civil rights are any of the civil liberties guaranteed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments and the Civil Rights Acts of the Constitution. Civil rights are also protected under state constitutions and federal statutes that protect a person’s civil rights. For example, African Americans with a correctable heart problem are only half as likely to receive the necessary surgery as are whites with the same problem. Disadvantaged groups had to struggle for equal rights. African Americans, women, Native Americans, and others have all had to fight for their rights in order to come closer to equality with white males. Americans have attained substantial equality under the law. They have, in legal terms, equal protection of the laws, equal access to accommodations and housing, and equal right to vote. Legal equality for all Americans has not resulted in de facto equality. African Americans, women, Hispanic Americans, and other disadvantaged groups have a small share of America’s opportunities and benefits. The history of America shows that disadvantaged groups have rarely achieved greater measure of justice without a struggle. Legal equality has been rarely bestowed by the more powerful upon the less powerful. Their gains have rarely always occurred through intense and sustained political movements, such as the civil rights movement of theShow MoreRelatedGender Discrimination Against Bank Of America876 Words   |  4 Pagesthe Civil Rights Act, the American s with Disability Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and many state laws. Even with these laws, discrimination still occurs within the workplace. This paper will investigate a case of gender discrimination against Bank of America and what could have been done to prevent this from happening. Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. In 2010, a group of female financial advisors filed a national class action lawsuit against Bank of America andRead MoreCivil Rights/Secret Life of Bees986 Words   |  4 PagesBridget Baker Mrs. McQuade Period 2 4/10/12 Racial Discrimination and Segregation In 1619 the very first African Americans arrived in America, coming over for the purpose of forced slavery. It’s been nearly four hundred years since then and African Americans are still not treated completely equal. But throughout the years major steps towards equality have been made and as a whole the United States is close to reaching this goal. The first key action taken was abolishing slavery in 1865, butRead MoreConsequences of the American Civil Rights Act of 19641192 Words   |  5 Pages Observing half a century of an equality stimulating law: an economic review on the consequences of the American Civil Right act of 1964 Introduction The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted on July 2nd, 1964) is a milestone in the law history of the United States of America, which prohibited major forms of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices and public accommodations. In commemoration of the 50th anniversaryRead MorePersuasive Essay On The Kneeling Movement1437 Words   |  6 PagesSince March 3, 1931, the Star-Spangled Banner has been instilled in almost every citizen in America as the National Anthem. It is ingrained that every person should show respect to the flag and the nation. In almost every classroom, students are told to stand facing the American flag with a hand over their heart and recite the pledge, or during any sporting, event fans are asked to stand to face the flag as a guest performer sings the National Anthem. This is an American tradition that everyone isRead MoreAfrican Americans During The 20th Century1261 Words   |  6 Pagesinfluential time frame for African-Americans in the United States would be from 1940-1970. During this time in America, Blacks everywhere were fighting against segregation and discrimination of their race. Consequently, the timeline of events that occurred during this time uncovers the numerous battles that African-American people fought in order to gain their freedom, and their rights as Americans. While these battles seemed everlasting, African-Americans were more persistent than ever in theirRead MoreCultural Impacts of the Civil Rights Act1357 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Civil Rights Act† Abstract Cultural Impacts of the Civil Rights Act Until the eighteenth century Civil Rights and Liberty’s were taken advantage of as a American. Observation in our judicial system cited within the paper suggest that our civil rights in America has improved and continue to evolve to this day. Cultural Impacts of American Civil Rights laws In recent years, a great deal has gone into fair treatment of all. As history serves, there was a great civil rightsRead MoreDiscrimination At The Modern Civil Rights Era Essay1539 Words   |  7 Pagesdeal with discrimination anymore. Don’t get me wrong, our country has grown so much over the years when it comes to tackling discrimination in the workplace. It’s just unfortunate that it’s just not natural for organizations and companies to naturally be ethical and moral when it comes to their treatment of their potential applicants or current employees. There are still cases of discrimination currently in our society. It may not be as severe compared to before the modern civil rights era, but discriminationRead MoreV. Bank Of America Corp Essay935 Words   |  4 Pagesemployees in the United States must adhere to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This act prohibits discrimination in employment-related matters and is administered by the Equal Employme nt Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (Canas Sonkak, 2014). In Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. Judy Calibuso filed a complaint against Bank of America with the EEOC in January 2007. Case Law Overview Calibuso et al. v. Bank of America Corp. et al. was a gender case that was filed in U.S. DistrictRead MoreEssay on Rhetorical Analysis of Jfk Civil Rights Address862 Words   |  4 PagesThe Civil Rights Address was one of the most influential speeches President John F. Kennedy has ever presented to the American people, and was one of many of his many accomplishments during his presidency. America was experiencing racial discrimination and racial inequality, and Americans needed a leader who would unite them. John F. Kennedy was a sincere, honest, inspirational individual whose duty was to influence equality to Americans. President John F. Kennedy’s address inspires and pulls onRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act And Voting Rights1665 Words   |  7 PagesGrowing up in America, children are taught by their grade school teachers to be proud of being American. They chant â€Å"Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492† and harmoniously sing patriotic songs such as Th e Star Spangled Banner while being utterly oblivious of America’s corrupt political system. It may not be until one is pursing their final years of high school, or perhaps even in college when they are aware of America’s history of possessing a highly restrictive political system. For

A Study on Comparison Between Chinese Values and American Values Free Essays

On the culture shock in the film of Gua Sha Culture shock was introduced to descried the anxiety produced when a person moves to a completely new environment, especially when a person arrives in a new country where he is confronted with a new cultural environment. In our modern society, more and more people get this sick. You step into a new culture world. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study on Comparison Between Chinese Values and American Values or any similar topic only for you Order Now Everything around you is new. You begin to adapt. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of at least one of five distinct phases: Honeymoon, Negotiation, Adjustment, Mastery and Independence, are the most common attributes that pertain to existing problems, further hindrances include: information overload, language barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence, formulation dependency, homesickness, infinite regress, boredom, response ability. There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts differently. But, this process takes time. Generally speaking, culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Culture shock involved two aspects: physical symptoms of culture shock and psychological symptoms of culture shock. And, how can we cure culture shock? The first coping mechanism is called â€Å"repression. † This happens when we pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers us. The second one is called â€Å"regression. † We forget everything, and something we become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called â€Å"isolation. † It is one of the worst coping mechanisms we can use because it separates us from those things that could really help us. Grandfather Xu comes from China to visit the family of his son, Datong Xu, in St. Louis. While there, he gives his grandson, Dennis Xu , a treatment of Gua Sha to treat a slight fever. The authorities, however, mistake the harmless traditional Chinese medical treatment for child abuse due to the obvious marks left on Dennis’ back. The family goes through hell when the child is taken away by the child protection agency. Meanwhile, Grandfather Xu leaves America because he finds that the living environment is really not suitable for him, as he feels that a simple, harmless treatment like Gua Sha, which is so common in China, is treated as child abuse in America. Furthermore, he cannot converse in English. An American friend of the father, Benton Davi), tries gua sha and proves that the treatment leaves painful-looking marks that are not actually painful or harmful at all. Finally, the father is able to return home and the family is reunited. Returning to one’s home culture after growing accustomed to a new one can produce the same effects as described above. This results from the psychosomatic and psychological consequences of the readjustment process to the primary culture. The affected person often finds this more surprising and difficult to deal with than the original culture shock. This phenomenon, the reactions that members of the re-entered culture exhibit toward the re-entrant, and the inevitability of the two are encapsulated in the saying â€Å"you can’t go home again,† first coined by Thomas Wolfe in his book of that title. Honeymoon phase During this period, the differences between the old and new culture are seen in a romantic light. For example, in moving to a new country, an individual might love the new food, the pace of life, and the locals’ habits. During the first few weeks, most people are fascinated by the new culture. They associate with nationals who speak their language, and who are polite to the foreigners. This period is full of observations and new discoveries. Like most honeymoon periods, this stage after some time, differences between the old and new culture become apparent and may create anxiety. Excitement may eventually give way to unpleasant feelings of frustration and anger as one continues to experience unfavorable events that may be perceived as strange and offensive to one’s cultural attitude. Language barriers, stark differences in public hygiene, traffic safety, food accessibility and quality may heighten the sense of disconnection from the surroundings. While being transferred into a different environment puts special pressure on communication skills, there are practical difficulties to overcome, such as circadian rhythm disruption that often leads to insomnia and daylight drowsiness; adaptation of gut flora to different bacteria levels and concentrations in food and water; difficulty in seeking treatment for illness, as medicines may have different names from the native country’s and the same active ingredients might be hard to recognize. Still, the most important change in the period is communication: People adjusting to a new culture often feel lonely and homesick because they are not yet used to the new environment and meet people with whom they are not familiar every day. The language barrier may become a major obstacle in creating new relationships: special attention must be paid to one’s and others’ culture-specific body language signs, linguistic faux pas, conversation tone, linguistic nuances and customs, and false fries. In the case of Gua Sha, some develop additional symptoms of loneliness that ultimately affect their lifestyles as a whole. Due to the strain of living in a different country without parental support, international students often feel anxious and feel more pressure while adjusting to new cultures—even more so when the cultural distances are wide, as patterns of logic and speech are different and a special emphasis is put on rhetoric. Again, after some time, one grows accustomed to the new culture and develops routines. One knows what to expect in most situations and the host country no longer feels all that new. One becomes concerned with basic living again, and things become more â€Å"normal†. One starts to develop problem-solving skills for dealing with the culture and begins to accept the culture’s ways with a positive attitude. The culture begins to make sense, and negative reactions and responses to the culture are reduced. In the mastery stage assignees are able to participate fully and comfortably in the host culture. Mastery does not mean total conversion; people often keep many traits from their earlier culture, such as accents and languages. It is often referred to as the biculturalism stage. You step into a new cultural world. Everything around you is new. We should devise defense mechanisms to help us cope with the effects of culture shock. How to cite A Study on Comparison Between Chinese Values and American Values, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Watch List Essay Example

Watch List Essay â€Å"Trouble with the Terrorist Watch List Database† 1. Please read the case study that starts on the next page. 2. Answer all 5 questions below. 1. What Information Systems concepts are illustrated in this case? 2. Why was the consolidated terror watch list created? What are the communication benefits of the list? (Comm) 3. Describe some of the weaknesses of the watch list. What management, organization, and technology factors are responsible for these weaknesses? 4.What steps would you take to correct some of the weaknesses identified in question 3? 5. Do you believe that the watch list represents a significant threat to individual’s privacy or Constitutional rights? Why or why not? Discuss the importance of business communication ethics in this case. Chapter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and .. ,? ~;,,,:,~,,:,::q7 !69 , , ~' ~~ ~ Y)~ ~ , . Trouble with the TerJorist Watch l. ist DatabaSc:! t~~A;jAt1IHt . w~ ~ , †¢ †¢. . ~1 :, , _ ~ ,1 eASE STUDY ,, d: , ,~ ~ ,. n the aftermath ofthe 9-11 attacks, both critics and defenders of the information systems employed by the U. S. intelligence community united to help analyze where things went wrong and how to prevent future terrorist incidents. The FBIs Thrrorist Screening Center, or TSC, was established to organize and standardize information about suspected terrorists between multiple government agencies into a single list to enhance communication between agencies.A database of suspected terrorists known as the terrorist watch list was born from these efforts in 2003 in response to criticisms that multiple agencies were maintaining separate lists and that these agencies lacked a consistent process to share relevant information concerning the individuals on each agencys list. Records in the TSC database contain sensitive but unclassified information on terrorist identities, such as name and date ofbirth, that can be shared with other screening agencies. Classified information about the people in the watch list is maintained in other law enforcement and intelligence agency databases.Records for the watch list database are provided by two sources: the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) managed by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence provides identifying information on individuals with ties to international terrorism. The FBI provides identifying information on individuals with ties to purely domestic terrorism. These agencies collect and maintain terrorist information and nominate individuals for inclusion in the TSCs consolidated watch list. They are required to follow strict procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the U. S. Attorney General.TSC staff must review each record submitted before it is added to the database. An individual will remain on the watch list until the respective department or agency that nominated that person to the list determines that the person should be removed fr om the list and deleted from its database. The watch list database is updated daily with new nominations, modifications to existing records, and deletions. The list has grown to over 750,000 records since its creation and is continuing to grow at a rate of 200,000 records each year since 2004. lnforn:ation on the list is distributed to a wide range of gow:rn- I ent agency systems for use in efforts to deter or detect the movements of known or suspected terrorists, including the FBI, CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), 1tansportation Security Administration (TSA), U. S. Department of Homeland Security, State Department, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, Secret Service, U. S. Marshals Service, and the White House, among others. Airlines use data supplied by the TSA system in their NoFly and Selectee lists for prescreening passengers, while the U. S. Customs and Border Protection system uses the watch list data to help screen travelers entering the United States.The State Departmen t system screens applicants for visas to enter the United States and U. S. residents applying for passports, while state and local law enforcement agencies use the FBI system to help with arrests, detentions, and other criminal justice activities. Each of these agencies receives the subset of data in the watch list that pertains to its specific mission. For example, records on U. S. citizens and lawful permanent residents are not exported to the State Department system for screening visa applicants because these individuals would not apply for a U. S. visa.All of these databases require certain minimum biographic or identifying data to accept records from the consolidated watch list. When an individual makes an airline reservation arrives at a U. S. port of entry, applies for a U. S. visa, or is stopped by state or local police within the United States, the frontline screening agency or airline conducts a name-based search of the individual against the records in the terrorist watch list database. When the computerized name-matching system generates a hit (a potential name match) against a watch list record, the airline or agency will review each potential match.The agency or airline is supposed to resolve any obvious mismatches that crop up. Matches that are clearly positive or exact matches that are inconclusive (uncertain or difficult to verify) are referred to the applicable screening agencys intelligence or operations center and to the TSC for closer examination. In turn, TSC checks its databases and other sources, including classified databases maintained by the NCTC and FBI, to confirm whether the individual is a positive, negative, or inconclusive match to the watch list record.TSC creates a daily report summarizing all J 270 Part Two Information Technology Infrastructure positive matches to the watch list and distributes them to numerous federal agencies. While the unification of various terrorism watch lists has been a positive step towards streamlin ing the process oflocating and apprehending terrorists, the project has been a slow and painstaking one, requiring the integration of at least 12 different databases. ! Wo years after the process ofintegration took place, 10 of the 12 databases had been processed.The remaining two databases (the u. s. Immigration and Customs Enforcements Automatic Biometric Identification System and the FBIs Integrated Fingerprint Identification System) are both fingerprint databases, and not technically watch lists. There is still more work to be done to optimize the lists usefulness. The TSCs list has introduced new issues and concerns regarding the adequacy ofthe information systems involved in the maintenance and usage of terrorism-related data.Reports from both the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the Office of the Inspector General confirm that the list contains inaccuracies and that policies for nomination and removal from the lists are not uniform between governmental departments. There has also been public outcry resulting from the size of the list and well-publicized incidents of obvious non-terrorists finding that they are included on the list.Information about the process for inclusion on the list must necessarily be carefully protected if the list is to be effective against terrorists; if the algorithms behind the list were public knowledge, terrorists could more easily avoid detection, defeating the lists purpose. On the other hand, for innocent people who are unnecessarily inconvenienced, the inability to ascertain how they came to be on the list is upsetting. Given the lists large size and constant growth rate one major criticism is that the criteria for inclusion on the list may be too minimal.While the specific criteria for inclusion on the list are not public knowledge, government agencies populate their watch lists by performing wide sweeps of information gathered on travelers, using many misspellings and alternate variations of the names of suspe cted terrorists. This often leads to the inc! usion of people that do not belong on watch lists, known as false positives. It also results in some people being listed multiple times under different spellings of their names, so the 750,000 records do not correspond to 750,000 different individuals.Reports indicate that certain individuals may have as many I as 50 different records on the list due to various aliases and alternate spellings of their names. From December 2003 through May 2007, individuals were positively matched to watch lists 53,000 times. Many individuals were matched multiple times. While these selection cliteria may be effective for tracking as many potential terrorists as possible, they also lead to many more erroneous entries on the list than if the process required more finely-tuned information to add new entries.Notable examples of false positives include U. S. Marine Daniel Brown, who was stopped at the airport for additional screening after an 8-month tour in Iraq; senator Ted Kennedy, who has been repeatediy delayed in the past because his name resembles an alias once used by a suspected terrorist; and John Anderson, a 6-year old boy who was stopped at an airport for additional investigation despite his young age. Like Kennedy, Anderson may have been added because his name is the same or similar to a different suspected terrorist.These incidents call attention to the quality and accuracy of the data in the TSC consolidated watch list. In June 2005, a report by the Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of the Inspector General found inconsistent record counts, duplicate records, and records that lacked data fields or had unclear sources for their data. Although TSC subsequently enhanced its efforts to identifY and correct incomplete or inaccurate watch list records, the Inspector General noted in September 2007 that TSC management of the watch list still showed some weaknesses.Critics of the list question whether or not a list that will soo n grow to over a million entries could have any real usefulness or significance in apprehending terrorists. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has been a vocal critic of the size of the list, claiming that it harasses and needlessly violates the privacy of thousands of people in an effort to monitor the movements of a decidedly smaller group of suspects. Senator Joe Lieberman, the Chairman of the Homeland Security Committee, said of the list that serious hurdles remain if it is to be as effective as e need it to be. Some of the concerns stem from its rapid growth, which could call into question the quality ofthe list itself. Given the option between a list that tracks every potential terrorist at the cost of unnecessarily tracking some innocents, and a list that fails to track many terrorists in an effort to avoid tracking innocents, many would choose the list that tracked every terrorist despite the drawbacks. But to make matters worse for those already inconvenienced by Ch apter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management 71 wrongful inclusion on the list, there is currently no simple and quick redress process for innocents that hope to remove themselves from it. The number of requests for removal from the watch list continues to mount, with over 24,000 requests recorded (about 2,000 each month) and only 54% of them resolved. The average time to process a request in 2008 is 40 days, which, although a mild improvement from 44 days in November 2007, is not fast enough to keep pace with the number of requests for removal coming in.As a result, lawabiding travelers that inexplicably find themselves on the watch list are left with no easy way to remove themselves from it. In February 2007, the Department of Homeland Security instituted its Itaveler Redress Inquiry Program (TRIP) to help people that have been erroneously added to terrorist watch lists remove themselves and avoid extra screening and questioning. John Anderson s mother claimed that despite her best efforts, she was unable to remove her son from the watch lists.Senator Kennedy reportedly was only able to remove himself from the list by personally bringing up the matter to Thm Ridge, then the Director of the Department of Homeland Security. Security officials say that mistakes such as the one that led to Anderson and Kennedys inclusion on no-fly and consolidated watch lists occur due to the matching of imperfect data in airline reservation systems with imperfect data on the watch lists. Many airlines dont include gender, middle name, or date ofbirth in their reservations records, which increases the likelihood offalse matches.While government agencies have been able to synchronize their data into a single list, there is still more work to be done to integrate that list with those maintained by airlines, individual states, and other localities using more information to differentiate individuals. The TSA is continuing to update their screenin g process so that the government, not individual airlines, is responsible for matching travelers to watch lists. Privacy is yet another concern surrounding the watch list.One way to improve screening and help reduce the number of people erroneously marked for additional investigation would be to use a more sophisticated system involving more personal data about individuals on the list. The TSA is developing just such a system, called Secure Flight, but it has been continually delayed due to privacy concerns regarding the sensitivity and safety of the data it would collect. Other similar surveillance programs and watch lists, such as the NSAs attempts to gather information about suspected terrorists, have drawn criticism for potential privacy violations.Additionally, the watch list has drawn criticism because of its potential to promote racial profiling and discrimination. Some allege that they were included by virtue of their race and ethnic descent, such as David Fathi, an attorney for the ACLU of Iranian descent, and Asif Iqbal, a U. S. citizen of Pakistani decent with the same name as a Guantanamo detainee. Outspoken critics of U. S. foreign policy, such as some elected officials and university professors, have also found themselves on the list. A report issued in March 2008 by DOJ Inspector General Glenn A.Fine and reports from the GAO also indicated that the FBI lacked standard and consistent procedures for nominatiug individuals to the list, perfOlming modifications to information, and relaying those changes to other governmental offices. The FBI sometimes delayed updating the list with new information or removing people from the list who were no longer deemed a threat. Nominations from FBI field offices were sometimes inaccurate or incomplete. FBI field offices submitted names of people who were not subjects ofterrorism investigations directly to the NCTC, bypassing the required headquarters review that could catch errors.FBI officials claim that the bu reau has made improvements, and now requires field office supervisors to review watch-list nominations for accuracy and completeness. Some non-FBI offices, including the Drug Enforcement Administration; the Bureau of Alcohol, Thbacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF); and others reported that they did not believe themselves to be a part of the watch list information process, or that they disagreed with the FBI over what constituted terrorist activity.Many DOJ offices acquire terrorism-related information that would help the FBI in populating the watch list, but share that information in an informal way and sometimes not at all. Improved coordination between the FBI and other intelligence agencies would go a long way towards improving the quality and efficacy of the terror watch list. The TSC is taking actions to improve watch list data and procedures for managing these data. The sooner, the better-in early 2008 it was revealed that 20 known terrorists were not correctly listed on 72 PartTwo Information Technology Infrastructure the consolidated watch list (whether these individuals were able to enter the U. S. as a result is unclear). Sources: Bob Egelko, Watch-list Name Confusion Causes Hardship, San Francisco Chronicle, March 20, 2008; Siobhan Gorman, NSAs Domestic Spying Grows as Agency Sweeps Up Data, The Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2008; Ellen Nakasliima, Reports Cite Lack of Uniform Policy for Terrorist Watch List, The Washington Post, March 18, 2008; Scott McCartney, When Your Name is Mud at the Airport, The Wall Street Journal,January 29, 2008; Audrey Hudson, Airport Watch List NowReviewed Often, The Washington Times, April 11, 2008; Mimi Hall, 15,000 Want Off the U. S. Terror Watch List, USA Today, November 8, 2007 and Terror Watch List Swells to More Than 755,000, USA The/ay, October 23, 2007; Justice Department Report Tells of Flaws in Terrorist Watch List, CNN. com, September 7, 2007; Burt Helm, The Terror Watch Lists Tangle, Businessweek. com, M ay 11, 2005, Paul Ro «enzweig and Jeff Jonas, Correcting False Positives: Redress and the Watch List Conundrum,The Heritage Foundation, June 17, 2005.